Political and International Law: National Territory and Declaration of Principles and State Policies

Preliminary Provisions and Basic Concepts A. National Territory Article 1 of the 1987 constitution provides that : “The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.” WHAT IS ARCHIPELAGIC DOCTRINE? It is a … Continue reading Political and International Law: National Territory and Declaration of Principles and State Policies

May “the power to tax” be delegated to the local government units?

(Board of Assessment Appeals of Laguna v. CTA 8 scra 224) Yes. In the absence of constitutional provision, “the power to tax may still be delegated to local government units in accordance with the well-settled doctrine that the power to create local government units by implication confers upon it the power to tax.” So even if no constitutional provision exists, local government units still possess the power to tax. Continue reading May “the power to tax” be delegated to the local government units?

Non-delegation of the power to tax under the Philippine Taxation Law

(Abakada Guro Party List v. Ermita [469 SCRA 1,122,123-124]) The Supreme Court sustained the constitutionality of R.A. 9337 authorizing the President to increase the VAT rate from 10% to 12% effective January 1, 2006 upon recommendation of the Secretary of Finance on the existence of either of the two conditions. RATIO:AS TO DELEGATION OF POWER: No, there is no undue delegation of legislative power but only of the discretion as to the execution of a law. This is constitutionally permissible. Congress does not abdicate its functions or unduly delegate power when it describes what job must be done, who must … Continue reading Non-delegation of the power to tax under the Philippine Taxation Law

“Destination Principle” and “Cross Border Doctrine’ in Taxation Law

Topic: TERRITORIALITY “Destination Principle“ According to the Destination Principle, goods and services are taxed only in the country where these are consumed. “Cross Border Doctrine” In connection with the said principle, the Cross Border Doctrine mandates that no VAT shall be imposed to form part of the cost of the goods destined for consumption outside the territorial border of the taxing authority. Hence, actual export of goods and services from the Philippines to a foreign country must be free of VAT while those destined for use or consumption within the Philippines shall be imposed with 10% VAT (Now 12% under … Continue reading “Destination Principle” and “Cross Border Doctrine’ in Taxation Law

VALENTIN TIO v. VIDEOGRAM REGULATORY BOARD(1987)

The Supreme Court held the levy of 30% tax under P.D. 1987 as for a public purpose, and therefore a valid imposition. Exercise of Regulatory power: The law, according to the Court, was imposed primarily for answering the need for regulating the video industry, particularly because of the rampant film piracy, the flagrant violation of intellectual property rights, and the proliferation of pornographic video tapes. Hence, while the direct beneficiaries of the said decree is the movie industry, the citizens are held to be its indirect beneficiaries. Continue reading VALENTIN TIO v. VIDEOGRAM REGULATORY BOARD(1987)

When may a person be liable for indemnity even when the act was not due to his negligent or fault?

Under Art 23 of the Civil Code of the Philippines, even when an act or event causing damage to another’s property was not due to the fault or negligence of the defendant, the latter shall be liable for indemnity if … Continue reading When may a person be liable for indemnity even when the act was not due to his negligent or fault?