Composition of Congress, Qualifications of Members, and Term of Office

The ruling on MAGDALO case as to whether the Comelec gravely abused its discretion when it denied the Petition for Registration filed by MAGDALO on the ground that the latter seeks to achieve its goals through violent or unlawful means.

Distinctions between Regional Operating Headquarters (ROHQ) and Regional Headquarters (RHQ)

The distinctions between ROHQ and RHQ are: As to purpose, R.A. No. 8756 defines Regional Operating Headquarters (ROHQ) as any foreign business entity formed, organized, and existing under any laws other than those of the Philippines whose purpose is to service its affiliates, subsidiaries or branches in the Philippines, Asia-Pacific Region, and other foreign markets.... Continue Reading →

When shall laws in the Philippines take effect?

CIVIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES ART.2 Laws shall take effect after fifteen (15) days following the completion of their publication either in the Official Gazette, or in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines, unless it is otherwise provided. (As amended by E.O 200) Notes: General Rule: Laws in the Philippines take effect after... Continue Reading →

Political and International Law: National Territory and Declaration of Principles and State Policies

Preliminary Provisions and Basic Concepts A. National Territory Article 1 of the 1987 constitution provides that : "The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, including its territorial... Continue Reading →


The Supreme Court held the levy of 30% tax under P.D. 1987 as for a public purpose, and therefore a valid imposition. Exercise of Regulatory power: The law, according to the Court, was imposed primarily for answering the need for regulating the video industry, particularly because of the rampant film piracy, the flagrant violation of... Continue Reading →

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